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Ls Models 30

Makes changing direction easier than competitive non-shuttle gear models. 12 forward / 12 reverse gear transmission provides more operating speeds than others in its class for superior control, precision and safe operations for virtually any application.

Ls Models 30

The Lexus LS (Japanese: レクサスLS, Hepburn: Rekusasu LS) is a full-size luxury sedan (F-segment in Europe) serving as the flagship model of Lexus, the luxury division of Toyota. For the first four generations, all LS models featured V8 engines and were predominantly rear-wheel-drive. In the fourth generation, Lexus offered all-wheel-drive, hybrid, and long-wheelbase variants. The fifth generation changed to using a V6 engine with no V8 option, and only one length was offered.

Development of the LS began in 1983 as the F1 project, the code name for a secret flagship sedan. At the time, Toyota's two existing flagship models were the Crown and Century models - both of which catered exclusively for the Japanese market and had little global appeal that could compete with international luxury brands such as Mercedes-Benz, BMW and Jaguar. The resulting sedan followed an extended five-year design process at a cost of over US$1 billion, and premiered with a new V8 engine and numerous luxury features. The Lexus LS was intended from its inception for export markets, and the Lexus division was formed to market and service the vehicle internationally. The original LS 400 debuted to strong sales, and was largely responsible for the successful launch of the Lexus marque.

In May 1985, designers started work on the F1 project. In late 1985, designers presented the first exterior study models to F1 management, featuring a sports car-like design with a low-slung hood and narrow front profile.[15] By 1986, the sedan used a three-box design with an upright stance, more prominent grille, and a two-tone body.[15] Extensive modeling and wind tunnel tests resulted in a low drag coefficient for a conventional production vehicle of the time (Cd 0.29).[16] For the passenger cabin, the materials-selection tests evaluated 24 different kinds of wood and multiple types of leather for two years before settling on specific trim combinations.[17] By 1986, the Lexus marque was created to support the launch of the flagship sedan,[18] and the vehicle became known as the Lexus LS.[13] Following eight design reviews, subsequent revisions, concept approval in February 1987,[19] and over US$1 billion in development expenses, the final design for the production Lexus LS 400 (chassis code UCF10) was frozen in May 1987 with design patents filed on 20 February 1987 and 13 May 1987.[12][20][21]

In Japan, the launch of Lexus was complicated by Toyota's existing four domestic dealership networks at the time of its introduction.[42] The Toyota Crown and Toyota Century were exclusive to Toyota Store locations.[43] During the LS 400's development, local dealers' requests for a Japanese domestic market version had grown,[15] and a right-hand-drive Toyota Celsior-badged version was introduced shortly after the LS 400's U.S. debut, and introduced on 9 October 1989 and only available at Toyopet Store locations.[44] The Celsior, named after the Latin word for "supreme", was largely identical to the LS.[44] Models came in either basic "A", a "B" model with uprated suspension, or fully equipped "C" trim specifications.[45] The Crown and the Crown Majesta, which appeared later in 1991, were only available at Toyota Store locations which carried Japan-only Toyota luxury models, like the Century.[43] Ownership costs for Japanese drivers were and are expensive due to Japanese Government dimension regulations and annual road tax obligations. Owning a Celsior in Japan is also considered extravagant due to the fact urban two-way streets are usually zoned at 40 km/h (25 mph) or less.[46] The Celsior introduced two world firsts: high-performance twin-tube shock absorbers and an air suspension combined with an upgraded version of Toyota's semi-active Toyota Electronic Modulated Suspension, called Piezo TEMS.[47] This was ahead of its time: Mercedes-Benz first introduced a similar electronically controlled air suspension on the 1999 Mercedes-Benz S-Class (W220) (Airmatic).

In December 1989, shortly after the LS 400's launch, Lexus ordered a voluntary recall of the 8,000 vehicles sold so far, based upon two customer complaints over defective wiring and an overheated brake light. All vehicles were serviced within 20 days, and the incident helped establish Lexus' customer service reputation.[26][50][51] By 1990, U.S. sales of the LS 400 had surpassed those of competing Mercedes-Benz, BMW, and Jaguar models.[52] Production of the first-generation LS 400 totaled over 165,000 units.[53] The LS 400 made Consumer Reports 2007 list of recommended vehicles that regularly last 320,000 km (200,000 mi) or more, with proper maintenance.[54]

A considerable point is that in the years after the LS400/Celsoir went out of production in 1994, the car has continued to influence the entire world of manufacturing. The Toyota Production System largely infiltrated American manufacturing around the time MIT's IMVP academic group coined lean manufacturing, as MBA John Krafcik used his Lexus-influenced knowledge learned to model Genesis, as Hyundai-Kia themselves used TPS to become benchmarks in modern day.[62] Within Toyota's own development efforts, the LS400's innovative advancements spread down through the company line-up. Through leveraging sister platforms, Toyota also used the economic conditions of currency differentials to trickle down the high standards set by the LS400. This type of reputation-setting efforts was monumental and not very profitable for Toyota, but they saw it as a way to gain a sterling reputation for quality and reliability. Afterwards Toyota planners would look for ways to reduce costs in the lower models (in their next generations). For example, the MX83 Toyota Cressida was a first glimpse at the LS400 and SXV10 Camry to come following in 1992. The MX83 was a clear step up from the 2nd generation V20 Camry. Additionally, Toyota saw it as an educational experience of refinement for engineering researchers in the United States market. It was large (notably more so than V20 Camry), and was designed to be a proper mid-size American car. Toyota used the MX83 as a hollow shell to build the LS400 interior concept into, until that cabin was transferred to a larger, more bubble type body shell. Extensive audio testing with Nakamichi systems was done by using LS400 prototype interiors in Cressida bodies.[63] As the LS400 was then refined, Toyota went through extraordinary efforts to refine the standards of the MX83 even slightly further, as fit and finish became the best in the industry. This level of fit and finish trickled down to the 1992 XV10 Toyota Camry/Lexus ES300 shared platform. The 1992 Camry shocked the industry as it was only a non-luxury midsize family sedan (in base non-XLE trims at least). However, the complex flushed window stamping and flowing one piece roof were modelled from new processes learned by Toyota making the LS400, as were the triple sealing framed doors. To accomplish this, the doors use indented rubber gaskets to seal the door in a fashion similar to that used by Tupperware food containers. There were no other mid-size sedans built to such fit and finish standards, except the high-end German BMW 5-series and Mercedes-Benz E-class cars. This point was made by Chris Goffey during BBC's 1991 Motorfair Top Gear coverage.[64]

Compared to previous generations, the LS 430 featured a greater number of model configurations and options.[95] While sharing the same body style, variants were differentiated by chassis configuration and onboard equipment. Models with the tuned sport suspension, sold as the "Touring" package in the United States,[87] featured larger, high-speed brakes.[39] These brakes were also standard on European market models.[39] Fully optioned models with height adjustable air suspension, tuned for a combination of soft ride and responsive handling, were sold in the United States as the "Ultra Luxury" edition.[87]

The LS 430 first went on sale in the United States with an initial base price of US$55,000, ranging up to US$70,000 when fully equipped.[90] At the high end, the LS 430's pricing encroached on European rivals as Lexus became increasingly able to command higher price premiums for its vehicles.[34] Sales for the LS 430 surpassed the previous generation, and production exceeded 140,000 units.[53] The LS 430 was produced until July 2006, marking the last occasion the Lexus flagship was produced in a single body style. In Japan, the equivalent Toyota Celsior was also sold from August 2000 until March 2006, when the long-awaited introduction of Lexus Japan saw the arrival of new generation Lexus models.[96] XF30 design patents were filed by Toyota in domestic Japan on 8 March 1999 at the Japan Patent Office under patent number 1080448.

In every year of production, the LS 430 was the most reliable luxury sedan in the J.D. Power and Associates Initial Quality Survey (with the early and late models of this series the best performing),[97][98][99] and the highest recorded scorer in the history of J.D. Power's Vehicle Dependability Survey.[100] Thatcham ratings data via the UK Motor Insurance Repair Research Centre listed the theft-prevention capabilities of the LS 430 as a maximum 5 stars, with the LS 430 being the first automobile to achieve the maximum theft-deterrence rating in 2001.[101][102]

Development on fourth generation LS began in 2001 under program code "250L", with the design process being done under Yo Hiruta from 2002 to late 2003, with the final production design being frozen in 2004.[107][109][110] In October 2005, Lexus premiered a gasoline-electric hybrid concept car, the LF-Sh (Lexus Future-Sedan hybrid), at the Tokyo Motor Show,[111] publicly previewing the next Lexus flagship with a concept version for the first time. Introduced at the January 2006 North American International Auto Show for the 2007 model year, the fourth-generation Lexus LS became the first Lexus model to be produced in both standard and long-wheelbase versions. Using an all-new platform,[112][113] the LS 460 (USF40) uses the standard 2,969 mm (116.9 in) wheelbase, while the LS 460 L (USF41) features a stretched 3,091 mm (121.7 in) wheelbase.[114] The fourth-generation models' technical specifications were shown in greater detail at the Geneva Motor Show in February 2006.[115] A hybrid version, LS 600h L (UVF46), was previewed at the New York International Auto Show in April 2006.[116] At its introduction in 2006, it won the Car of the Year Japan award for the second time. 350c69d7ab


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